Administering Character Sets
Printers differ in the method that they use to print text in various font styles. For example, PostScript printers treat text as graphics. These printers can generate text in different fonts. They can also place the text in any position, size, or orientation on the page. Other types of printers support a more limited number of font styles and sizes. These printers use either print wheels, font cartridges, or preprogrammed selectable character sets. Usually, only one printing method applies to a given printer type.
From the perspective of the LP print service, print wheels and font cartridges are similar. In both cases, someone must intervene and mount the hardware on the printer, when needed. Character sets that require you to physically mount a print wheel or font cartridge are referred to as hardware character sets. Character sets that do not require hardware mounting, come preprogrammed with the printer. These character sets can be selected by a print request. They are referred to as software character sets.
When you set up a non-PostScript printer, you need to tell the LP print service which print wheels or selectable character sets are available to users. When users submit print requests, the lp -S command enables them to specify a print wheel or selectable character set to use for the print job. Users do not have to know which type of character set applies. They just refer to the font style by the name you have defined. For example, you can define a print wheel as gothic. To request the gothic print wheel, the user would use the following command:
% lp -S gothic filename
Selectable Character Sets
The selectable character sets supported by a printer are listed in the terminfo entry for that printer. For example, the entry for the ln03 printer is /usr/share/lib/terminfo/l/ln03. You can find the names of selectable character sets for any printer type in the terminfo database by using the tput command. The syntax for the tput command is as follows:
tput -T printer-type csn
The csn option is an abbreviation for character set number. The number starts with 0, which is always the default character set number after the printer is initialized. To display the names of the other character sets, you can repeat the command by using -1, -2, -3, and so on, in place of the -0. For each selectable character set, a terminfo name, for example, usascii, english, finnish, and so forth, is returned.
In general, the terminfo character set names should closely match the character set names that are used in the manufacturer's documentation for the printer. Because all manufacturers do not use the same character set names, the terminfo character set names can differ from one printer type to the next printer type.
Note - If you do not specify the selectable character sets that can be used with a printer, the LP print service assumes that the printer can accept any character set name, such as cs0, cs1, or cs2, or the terminfo name known for the printer.
Character sets for PostScript printers are not listed when you use the lpstat -p -l command. The PostScript fonts are controlled by PostScript filters, not by entries in the terminfo database. For information about how to administer PostScript fonts, see Administering Fonts.
Users can use the lpstat -p -l command to display the names of the selectable character sets that you have defined for each printer on a print server.
Hardware Character Sets
To administer hardware-mounted character sets, you inform the LP print service of the following:
Then, when a user requests a particular character set by using the lp -S command, the print scheduler sends an alert to mount the print wheel. In addition, the print request is placed in the print queue. When you mount the correct print wheel and tell the LP print service that the print wheel is mounted, the job is printed. For more information, see How to Unmount and Mount a Print Wheel or Font Cartridge.
If you do not specify multiple print wheels or font cartridges for a printer, the LP print service assumes that the printer has a single, fixed print wheel or font cartridge. As such, users cannot specify a special print wheel or font cartridge when using that printer.
Unlike selectable character sets, the names you use for print wheels or font cartridges are not tied to entries in the terminfo database. Print wheel names or font cartridge names are used only for the purpose of communicating with the LP print service and its users.
However, the names you choose for print wheels or font cartridges should have meaning to the users. The names should refer to font styles. In addition, the names should be the same across printers that have similar print wheels, font cartridges, or selectable character sets. That way, users can specify a font style (character set), without regard to which printer will be used, or whether a print wheel, font cartridges, or a selectable character set will be used.
Tracking Print Wheels
The procedure for tracking print wheels is similar to the procedure for tracking forms. Some printers, usually letter-quality printers, have removable print heads that provide a particular font or character set. Removable print heads include print wheels and print cartridges. A user can request a named character set. If that character set is not available, the LP print service notifies root of the request. The job is stored in the print queue until the print wheel is changed.
Alerts for Mounting Print Wheels or Font Cartridges
You request alerts for mounting print wheels or font cartridges in the same way that you request other alerts from the LP print service. For general information about alerts, see Setting Up Printer Fault Recovery by Using LP Print Commands.
How to Define a Print Wheel or Font Cartridge
These procedure shows how to define a print wheel or font cartridge that can be used with the printer.
Example 8-1 Defining a Print Wheel
The following example shows how to define the pica print wheel on the printer luna. The print client is named asteroid.
asteroid# lpadmin -p luna -S pica
How to Unmount and Mount a Print Wheel or Font Cartridge
Example 8-2 Unmounting and Mounting a Print Wheel
The following example shows how to unmount the current print wheel on the printer luna and mount the pica print wheel.
# lpadmin -p luna -M -S none # lpadmin -p luna -M -S pica
How to Set an Alert to Mount a Print Wheel or Font Cartridge
Example 8-3 Setting an Alert to Mount a Print Wheel
The following example shows how to set email alerts to occur every 5 minutes for the elite print wheel when the print queue contains 10 print requests for the elite.
# lpadmin -S elite -A mail -Q 10 -W 5
Example 8-4 Setting an Alert to Mount a Font Cartridge
The following example shows how to set email alerts to occur every minute for the finnish font cartridge when the print queue contains 5 print requests for the finnish.
# lpadmin -S finnish -A mail -Q 5 -W 1
Example 8-5 Setting Up No Alerts for a Print Wheel
The following example shows how to set up no alerts for the elite print wheel.
# lpadmin -S elite -A none
How to Set Up an Alias for a Selectable Character Set
You do not need to perform this procedure if the terminfo names for the selectable character sets are adequate. For more information on using the terminfo database, see Adding a terminfo Entry for an Unsupported Printer.
Example 8-6 Setting Up an Alias for a Selectable Character Set
The following example shows how to display the names of selectable character sets for the usascii selectable character set on the printer luna. The printer luna is a ln03 printer type. This example also shows how to specify text as an alias for the usascii selectable character set.
# tput -T ln03 cs0 usascii# tput -T ln03 cs1 english# tput -T ln03 csn2 finnish# tput -T ln03 csn3 japanese# tput -T ln03 cs4 norwegian# # lpadmin -p luna -S usascii=text